Network Configuration (interface) on a Debian system

The majority of network setup can be done via the interfaces configuration file at /etc/network/interfaces. Here, we can give our network card an IP address (or use dhcp), set up routing information, configure IP masquerading, set default routes and much more.

Using DHCP to automatically configure the interface

auto eth0
allow-hotplug eth0
iface eth1 inet dhcp

iface eth2 inet6 dhcp  #For DHCPv6 (used for IPv6)

iface eth3 inet6 auto  #stateless address autoconfiguration, or SLAAC

Configuring the interface manually

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
  address 192.168.12.20
  netmask 255.255.255.0
  gateway 192.168.12.1

auto eth1
iface eth1 inet6 static
  address 2001:db8::c0ca:1eaf
  netmask 64
  gateway 2001:db8::1ead:ed:beef

Add DNS nameserver

dns-nameservers 10.10.10.10

Setting the speed and duplex

auto eth0 
iface eth0 inet static
   address ...
   netmask ...
   gateway ...
   up sleep 5; ethtool -s eth0 ...

Bringing up an interface without an IP address

iface eth0 inet manual
   pre-up ifconfig $IFACE up
   post-down ifconfig $IFACE down
iface eth0.99 inet manual
   post-up ifconfig $IFACE up
   pre-down ifconfig $IFACE down

 

auto interface – Start the interface(s) at boot. That’s why the lo interface uses this kind of linking configuration.

allow-auto interface – Same as auto

allow-hotplug interface – Start the interface when a “hotplug” event is detected. In the real world, this is used in the same situations as auto but the difference is that it will wait for an event like “being detected by udev hotplug api” or “cable linked”.

inet static – Defines a static IP address.

inet manual – Does not define an IP address for an interface. Generally used by interfaces that are bridge or aggregation members, or have a VLAN device configured on them.

inet dhcp – Acquire IP address through DHCP protocol.

inet6 static – Defines a static IPv6 address.

address – IP address for a static IP configured interface

netmask – netmask

gateway – The default gateway of a server. Be careful to use only one of this guy.

down – Use the following command to down the interface instead of ifdown.

post-down – Actions taken right after the interface is down.

pre-up – Actions before the interface is up.

up – Use the following command to up the interface instead of ifup.

 

Refer https://wiki.debian.org/NetworkConfiguration for more configuration options.

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